片中的James.多诺万是一位辩护律师

亿万先生官方网站: 1

At first, the guy didn’t want to confirm the accident and we didn’t know
what he planed for.May be he wanted us to fix our car in their
company.Honestly,I ever consider let the vehicle repair compay to fix
our car, because it faster and can be done without any mess. But afer we
called several friends, we decided that we’d better follow the claims to
fix our car with the at fault party’s insurance company.and here is
why:firstly,we are not the at-fault party, and secondly,we also have a
claim against at fault party’s diminished value.even it is fixed
perfectly,it is not worth as much as it is not involved in an
accident.So we insisted to confirm the accident and determine the amount
of loss.When we finish this ,it is almost 5:pm.Next, we go to the auto
4s shop together.

部分一:怎么着尊重地批驳一种观点

多诺万和另一名律师 Bates
在谈论案情:多诺万为一家保管公司做法律顾问,该有限支撑公司保险的一个驾车人在同步交通事故中撞了三个骑摩托车的人。双方在座谈有限协理公司的事故赔付任务难点。

DONOVAN: Don’t say “my guy.” He’s not “my guy.”
BATES: Yes he’s your guy. Who’re we talking about?
DONOVAN: We’re talking about a guy who is insured by my client. So
don’t make him “my guy.”

多诺万在这里运用了戮穿谎话(Clarification)的法子:我们研讨的那人不是自身的当事者,请不要把她说成是本身的当事人。在研究体面难点时,大家对定义的定义必必要鲜明,无法歪曲。借使大家承受了对方对定义的定义,而不百折不挠自己的接头,就很有可能在后头的驳斥中被敌手「绕进去」,那会让大家丧失主动权。

BATES: Okay, fine, my point is he — the guy insured by your client —
he doesn’t deny any of these things happened —

DONOVAN: “These things?”

BATES: Yes. These five things.

DONOVAN: Wait. Hold it, hold it, hold it. Not five things, one thing.

BATES: Clearly, it’s five things.

DONOVAN: Well — I’m sorry — it’s not clear to me. Five things?
Explain it to
me.

BATES: It’s self-evident.

DONOVAN: Okay, then tell me what happened, tell me the story in a way
that makes sense. For five things.

在那边,多诺万牢牢抓住对手不放,不给对方喘息的机遇。「那几个东西?是甚呀?说清楚。」当对手说「It’s
self-evident(那是不言自明的)」时候,多诺万拒绝接受,要求对方付出证据。「不是五件事,是一件事。如若您觉得是五件事,要给本人解释清楚。」那是何等?是写
TOEFL 和 GRE 以及任何作文的最要紧的尺度:讲证据!

BATES: The guy insured by your client — is driving down State Highway
19 when he loses control of his car, hits my five guys. The five guys
who hired me to represent them because you’re not honoring your claim.

DONOVAN: You mean my client is not honoring the claim. The insurance
company.

BATES: Mr. Donovan: we’re all clear on who’s who here.

DONOVAN: Except, my client honors every claim. They do, Mr. Bates,
every
single legitimate claim. Up to the limit of their liability, which is
$100,000 per accident in the case of this man’s policy. And this is
one claim, according to your description. “He hit my five guys.” The
guy insured by my client had one accident, one one one, losing
control of the car and hitting five motorcyclists.

多诺万是一个老大认真的人。为了强调团结的见地,他在那边用了「one one
one」,还真是根本的政工说五遍。几乎严穆认真到了动人的档次。

BATES: From their point of view, five things happened.

DONOVAN: Look Bob — may I? Bob? (gestures to self) Jim. If I go
bowling and I throw a strike, one thing happened. Ten things didn’t
happen.

BATES: Jim. My clients are not bowling pins. As much your guy might
have
treated them so —

DONOVAN: Lemme finish. If your house is insured to $100,000 and a
tornado carries it away, it carried away one house. It didn’t pick up
every stick of furniture and destroy it in a separate incident. If
that’s what you’re saying, well, then there is never any limit to our
liability and that is the end of the insurance business. And then,
Bob, nobody is safe.

倘使说前面的两段对话都是选配,这一段就是刀光剑影的竞赛了。Bates
律师试图求证,一个的哥撞倒多个骑车人,要分头对多少人展开赔偿。多诺万反驳说,这是手拉手交通事故而不是五起事故。有限支撑集团对伙同事故的赔付有上限,所以不可能分别给多个人更多的赔偿。多诺万的见解无疑是有理有据、站得住脚的。他这么说:

Up to the limit of their liability, which is $100,000 per accident in
the case of this man’s policy. And this is one claim, according to
your description. “He hit my five guys.” The guy insured by my client
had one accident, one one one, losing control of the car and
hitting five motorcyclists.

确保集团的职分上限是每起事故赔付十万法郎。而驾驶人撞倒多个人,那是一块事故,不是五起事故。所以六人加起来,也只可以分享那十万元的赔付,无权向有限帮助集团索赔越多。

这听上去很有理,但就如在感情上令人难以承受。所以 Bates
律师反驳说,对七个受害人而言,那是五起事故。怎样说服她接受一个更合理(但就好像略狠毒)的看法吗?多诺万律师用了多少个类比。

类比 1
打保龄球的时候,我扔出一个全中,十个球瓶被击倒,那是一件事,而不是十件事。

类比 2
一幢房屋被飓风摧毁,台风摧毁的是整座房子,而不是一件一件分别摧毁了里面的农机具和摆布。

那四个类比看起来不讲心境。所以 Bates
律师反驳说,「你不可以把人作为保龄球瓶」。但那个理论没有驳倒多诺万的主旨逻辑:当一件业务完全暴发的时候,大家不应有把它割裂为众八个例外的、相互独立的事件。这么些宗旨逻辑与她们切磋的那起交通事故,以及多诺万在事故赔付职分上的立足点,是一样的。那就是大家所说的客体类比。鉴于
TOEFL 的口语、写作和 GRE 的 AW
都急需举例子和辩论,而说理的一种格局是开展类比,举事例其实也须求例子本身和见地之间形成有效类比。那什么样是一蹴而就的类比和举例呢?

  1. 类比关系中的七个东西最好在万象上好像且简单被明白(一辆车撞了多少人,一个球击倒十个瓶);如果是举事例,那么例子本身要比观点更直观、更易于精晓。
  2. 类比关系中的八个东西在内在逻辑上中度一致(一辆车三遍性撞了几个人,一场风暴一下子毁灭了整座房子);例子也要和见解的内在逻辑高度一致。

那番话可以说已经到头驳倒了 Bates
律师的主持。所以最后,多诺万为钻探盖棺定论:假诺都按您说的那么赔偿,有限支撑公司就得承担无限的职责,保障业就要完蛋啦,而且尚未什么人是安全的。这番话配上前面的类比和对定义的莫大澄清,足以有限支撑多诺万全身而退。在漫天进度中,多诺万律师在言语上毫不留情,说话的语气和腔调咄咄逼人,但并不曾显表露别样恼怒、不屑或自居,可以说成功了不怒自威。那也是讲道理的顶峰表现。

剧照 2

we are so tired today.it is so complicated of this thing.

电影海报

Auto 4s shop said it needs to pay first, so we called her
again.shewanted us topay that afront.Wow! I just can’t believe this.how
can we do that?if we paid,what if she don’t acknowledge it?at that time,
Ieven consider file the claim of our own insurance company,but that’s
stupid,because our insurance fees will go up next year.fortunately we
didn’t choose that idea.Besides,repairing our car would take at least a
month ,because there are still lots of damaged cars caused by Typhoon
waiting to befixed.They won’t give me a temporary car and we don’t have
an extra to drive,so I might have to take bus to work.Oh,noooo! So, we
decided to call police again, she finally agreed to pay afront.that is a
relief.

局地二:怎么着迂回出击驳倒一种看法

自此,随着剧情的上扬,多诺万律师接受委派,准备为Abe尔上校辩护。中情局的探员
Hoffman
找上门来,须要多诺万把她与Abe尔的对话内容告诉给中情局,以博取情报。那分明违反弥利坚的连锁法规,也背离律师的工作准则。Hoffman
试图说服多诺万破坏规矩,多诺万则有理有据地对此开展了尊严回手。

(此处的 MAN 就是 Hoffman 探员)

DONOVAN: CIA?

MAN: Yeah. Just wanted to chat. How’s the case going?

DONOVAN: The case is going great. Couldn’t be better.

MAN: Uh-huh. Has your guy talked?

DONOVAN: …Excuse me?

MAN: You met him, has he talked? Has he said anything yet?

(Donovan stares at him. Then,)

DONOVAN: We’re not having this conversation.

MAN: No, of course not.

DONOVAN: No, I mean we’re really not having it. You’re asking me to
violate attorney-client privilege.

到此刻甘休都是选配。多诺万明显不想和对方打圆场,一语中的提议了对方的指标。那实质上也是大家需求上学的讲道理的出口格局:不要绕弯子,把你的见解直截了地面拍出来。考试中的口语和撰写部分都有严苛的小时范围,在那么些限制之下又需要大家把话说知道,实际上就是变相地须求大家少说废话、直奔宗旨。

MAN: Oh c’mon counselor, you —

DONOVAN: And I wish people like you would quit saying “Oh c’mon,
counselor.” I didn’t like it the first time it happened today, a judge
said it to me twice, and the more I hear it, the more I don’t like it.

MAN: Ok, well listen, I understand attorney-client privilege. I
understand all the legal gamesmanship and I understand that that’s how
you make a living. But I’m talking to you about something else — the
security of your country. I’m sorry if the way I put it offends you,
but we need to know what Abel is telling you. You understand me,
Donovan? We need to know. Don’t go Boy Scout on me — we don’t have a
rule book here.

Hoffman 在此处的「Oh come
on」实际上在大家的平时生活中也不时出现。你和一个人讲道理,他忽然话锋一变,开头和您谈人情、谈潜规则、谈关系……你势必对上面那些表述不生疏:

「哎哎,兄弟!(不要那么认真好不佳)」

「没事~~~~(拖很长的唱腔,开端准备不讲理)」

Hoffman
探员试图绕开法律和律师的差事准则,他的武器比一般的人情世故要强硬得多:「那是为了国家安全的内需」。仗着那多少个神圣的大字,他须求多诺万律师违背保密协议,「别跟自家玩童子军荣誉守则(Boy
Scout),大家不讲游戏规则。」

江山安全,那究竟是一块很可怕的标记。面对相似的光棍,大家当然可以严穆地辩驳回手。但假使那人是您的总高管娘,准备对您使用咸猪手呢?就如我们就得考虑换一种办法行事,无法简单地说一句「你滚」。所以多诺万律师接下去放了一个大招:

(Donovan takes a beat, sizing the man up.)

DONOVAN: You’re agent Hoffman, yeah?

MAN: Yeah.

DONOVAN: German extraction? (extraction 能够通晓为出身,即 Hoffman
有德意志联邦共和国血统)

MAN: Yeah, so?

DONOVAN: My name is Donovan, Irish. Both sides, mother and father.I’m
Irish, you’re German, but what makes us both Americans? Just one
thing, one one one. The rule book. We call it the Constitution. We
agree to the rules, and that’s what makes us Americans, it’s all that
makes us Americans. So don’t tell me there’s no rule book and don’t
nod at me like that you sonofabitch.

最后这段话是顶级的「以子之矛攻子之盾」。在您为难正面驳倒对手的观点时,提出对方逻辑中无法自洽之处,让对方不战而败,就是顶级选项。Hoffman
你不是跟自己讲国家安全,讲游戏规则吗?嗯,美利坚联邦合众国的总游戏规则是美利坚联邦合众国民事诉讼法;没有花旗国国际法就从未有过所谓的米国,因为只要不认账民事诉讼法,你这几个德国人和本身这一个爱尔兰人就与United States一毛钱关系尚未。所以当你以国家安全的名义让我做违背美利哥商法和法规的事的时候,对不起,你在破坏美利坚合众国设有的根基。你是自相顶牛的。

多诺万律师的思绪实际上类似于归谬法(Reductio ad
absurdum),其中央步骤是那样的:

  1. 辨认出对方视角中的前提和结论,或者说手段和目标(为了国家安全,我要你做违纪的事)
  2. 从对方的演讲中引申出一个或一多重严密的推测(非法的事情,尤其是反其道而行之行政诉讼法的事体,实际上动摇了美利坚合众国存在的底蕴)
  3. 最后得出一个测算,与对方论述中的前提或根本目的抵触(动摇花旗国存在的底蕴等于威逼国家安全,即为了国家安全而最后威胁了江山安全)
  4. 停在此处。

在答辩和理论中,假诺我们能把话说到那一个境界,那么一般已经得以转身潇洒地走开,「你已经死了」。所以最终多诺万也丝毫不准备掩饰他对
Hoffman 的反感,用一句 s.o.b. 截止了出口。

这番话直接把 Hoffman
打得哑口无言。在多诺万收拾东西准备走的时候,他讪笑着又多问了一句话,「大家应当担心您呢?(Do
we need to worry about
you?)」这句话实际包罗暗中恫吓的意思,「若是暴发什么样不太好的政工我可不了解该怎么承担啊……」。对此,多诺万丝毫不为所动,「倘使你们让自身执行我的义务就如何事都不会发出。(Not
if I’m left alone to do my job.)」意思就是,你们 CIA
请自己来做律师,你假诺做了对本人不利的事,那实在就打了你协调的脸,你望着办。

看得出,在严穆的发话中讲道理,那是一件格外难的事。大家须求的是对协调立场的肯定坚定不移,对对方视角中的漏洞予以坚决反击,还要有丰裕的胆气。另一方面,尽管在冷战的紧张氛围下,米国一体化上照旧是个讲道理的地方,这也是令我们分外羡慕的……所以,当我们愿意去美国留学,希望在讲道理的
TOEFL 和 GRE
考试中得到好战表的时候,请务必学会怎么在盛大的语境下讲道理。

2016 年 2 月

An old woman hit my car on the drivers’ side, there are scrathes above
the wheel , on the realms of the wheel and there is also a part pushed
in .It is bad.We were just driving on the road,she back her car from the
parking lot without watching back,and bump!It is 100% her fault.She is
very annoying and crazy, tring to drive away. She just left her phone
number,yelled she is very very busy, her car insurance will cover
repairs of our car and drive away. my husband and I have never had a car
collision or car accident before, and just don’t know how much what need
to be done, what’s going need to be done,how to get our car fixed.So my
husband called the old woman many times,but she didn’t answer.Fuck!I
know it is not super bad,but her attitude is so annoying and made us so
mad.So my husband had to called the police to report this accident. A
few minutes later, two police officers come over, one of them called
her, she answered. She said she will let someone to deal with it ,and we
agreedto go to vehicle loss setting center together in the afternoon,
when we got there,she didn’t even show up,she let a young guy working in
auto repaire company to deal with the thing.well,maybe it is ok.

《间谍之桥(Bridge of
Spies)》是斯皮尔伯格导演、科恩兄弟出席编剧、汤姆.汉克斯主角的一部美利坚同盟国影视。在将要发表的第
88 届奥斯卡奖中,本片获得了包罗最佳影片、最佳原创剧本在内的六项提名。

亿万先生官方网站:,本片是一部相当美国主旋律的影片。美苏冷战正酣之时,纽约律师James.多诺万(Tom.汉克斯饰演)受美利坚合众国政党的委任,为被抓获的苏联王牌间谍Rudolph.Abe尔上校担任律师。多诺万顶住多方压力,拒绝走过场,认真实施了辩论义务。不久后,美利坚合众国的一架
U-2
侦察机在苏联被击落,飞行员Powell被俘。多诺万受雇于中情局,代表U.S.A.与苏联讨价还价,试图以Abe尔换回鲍Will。

剧照 1

以下独白文本摘自电影剧本

想感受完整剧情的各位可以去看原片。大家那篇小作品的目的是「看电影,学语言表明」。片中的James.多诺万是一位辩护律师,执行的是严穆的政治职分,那么大家能从他的言语中学点什么呢?当然是学怎么样像律师一样讲道理。我从片中节选了多诺万两段非凡有逻辑的对话,以为例子,和大家一齐聊天怎么着用庄重的口语在盛大的境地下讲体面的道理。

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