片中的詹姆士.多诺万是一位辩驳律师

图片 1

An old woman hit my car on the drivers’ side, there are scrathes above
the wheel , on the realms of the wheel and there is also a part pushed
in .It is bad.We were just driving on the road,she back her car from the
parking lot without watching back,and bump!It is 100% her fault.She is
very annoying and crazy, tring to drive away. She just left her phone
number,yelled she is very very busy, her car insurance will cover
repairs of our car and drive away. my husband and I have never had a car
collision or car accident before, and just don’t know how much what need
to be done, what’s going need to be done,how to get our car fixed.So my
husband called the old woman many times,but she didn’t answer.Fuck!I
know it is not super bad,but her attitude is so annoying and made us so
mad.So my husband had to called the police to report this accident. A
few minutes later, two police officers come over, one of them called
her, she answered. She said she will let someone to deal with it ,and we
agreedto go to vehicle loss setting center together in the afternoon,
when we got there,she didn’t even show up,she let a young guy working in
auto repaire company to deal with the thing.well,maybe it is ok.

电影海报

At first, the guy didn’t want to confirm the accident and we didn’t know
what he planed for.May be he wanted us to fix our car in their
company.Honestly,I ever consider let the vehicle repair compay to fix
our car, because it faster and can be done without any mess. But afer we
called several friends, we decided that we’d better follow the claims to
fix our car with the at fault party’s insurance company.and here is
why:firstly,we are not the at-fault party, and secondly,we also have a
claim against at fault party’s diminished value.even it is fixed
perfectly,it is not worth as much as it is not involved in an
accident.So we insisted to confirm the accident and determine the amount
of loss.When we finish this ,it is almost 5:pm.Next, we go to the auto
4s shop together.

《窥伺者之桥(Bridge of
Spies)》是斯PeelBerg编剧、Cohen兄弟参加出品人、汤姆.汉克斯主角的生机勃勃部美利哥影视。在就要发表的第
88 届奥斯卡奖中,本片获得了富含最好影片、最好原创剧本在内的六项提名。

Auto 4s shop said it needs to pay first, so we called her
again.shewanted us topay that afront.Wow! I just can’t believe this.how
can we do that?if we paid,what if she don’t acknowledge it?at that time,
Ieven consider file the claim of our own insurance company,but that’s
stupid,because our insurance fees will go up next year.fortunately we
didn’t choose that idea.Besides,repairing our car would take at least a
month ,because there are still lots of damaged cars caused by Typhoon
waiting to befixed.They won’t give me a temporary car and we don’t have
an extra to drive,so I might have to take bus to work.Oh,noooo! So, we
decided to call police again, she finally agreed to pay afront.that is a
relief.

本片是意气风发部至极美利坚联邦合众国主旋律的电影。美苏冷战正酣之时,London律师詹姆斯.Donovan(汤姆.汉克斯饰演)受美利坚同盟军政党的委任,为被捕获的苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟金牌眼线Rudolph.Abe尔元帅负责律师。多诺万顶住多方压力,回绝走过场,认真实行了反对义务。不久后,United States的黄金年代架
U-2
调查机在苏联被击落,飞行员鲍Will被俘。多诺万受雇于中情局,代表美利坚联邦合众国与苏维埃社会主义共和国联盟构和,试图以Abe尔换回鲍Will。

we are so tired today.it is so complicated of this thing.

想感受完整传说剧情的各位能够去看原片。我们那篇小文章的目标是「看电影,学语言表达」。片中的詹姆士.多诺万是一人辩白律师,施行的是严穆的政治义务,那么我们能从他的言语中学点什么呢?当然是学怎么着像律师同样讲道理。笔者从片中节选了多诺万两段特别常有逻辑的对话,感到例子,和大家协作聊天怎么着用肃穆的口语在庄敬的地步下讲严穆的道理。

以下独白文本摘自电影剧本

剧照 1

有个别后生可畏:如何尊重地批驳大器晚成种意见

Donovan和另一名律师 Bates
在钻探案情:多诺万为一家有限支持集团做法律顾问,该保证公司保险的多个驾乘人在联合具名交通事故中撞了多少个骑摩托车的人。双方在座谈保障集团的事故赔偿职责问题。

DONOVAN: Don’t say “my guy.” He’s not “my guy.”
BATES: Yes he’s your guy. Who’re we talking about?
DONOVAN: We’re talking about a guy who is insured by my client. So
don’t make him “my guy.”

Donovan在这里间运用了辟谣(Clarification)的秘籍:我们研商的那人不是自己的当事者,请不要把她说成是自身的当事者。在探讨严肃问题时,大家对定义的定义必须要分明,不能够歪曲。假诺大家承当了对方对定义的定义,而不持铁杵成针自身的敞亮,就很有望在这里后的争鸣中被对手「绕进去」,那会让大家丧失话语权。

BATES: Okay, fine, my point is he — the guy insured by your client —
he doesn’t deny any of these things happened —

DONOVAN: “These things?”

BATES: Yes. These five things.

DONOVAN: Wait. Hold it, hold it, hold it. Not five things, one thing.

BATES: Clearly, it’s five things.

DONOVAN: Well — I’m sorry — it’s not clear to me. Five things?
Explain it to
me.

BATES: It’s self-evident.

DONOVAN: Okay, then tell me what happened, tell me the story in a way
that makes sense. For five things.

在这,多诺万紧紧抓住对手不放,不给对方喘息的机遇。「那三个东西?是啥呀?说知道。」当对手说「It’s
self-evident(那是不言而喻标)」时候,Donovan谢绝选取,要求对方付出证据。「不是五件事,是风流罗曼蒂克件事。要是你感到是五件事,要给自家说北周楚。」那是怎么着?是写
TOEFL 和 GRE 以致全部作文的最重大的法则:讲证据!

BATES: The guy insured by your client — is driving down State Highway
19 when he loses control of his car, hits my five guys. The five guys
who hired me to represent them because you’re not honoring your claim.

DONOVAN: You mean my client is not honoring the claim. The insurance
company.

BATES: Mr. Donovan: we’re all clear on who’s who here.

DONOVAN: Except, my client honors every claim. They do, Mr. Bates,
every
single legitimate claim. Up to the limit of their liability, which is
$100,000 per accident in the case of this man’s policy. And this is
one claim, according to your description. “He hit my five guys.” The
guy insured by my client had one accident, one one one, losing
control of the car and hitting five motorcyclists.

多诺万是一个丰硕认真的人。为了重申团结的见识,他在这里边用了「one one
one」,还真是根本的事务说三次。大致庄敬认真到了使人陶醉的档次。

BATES: From their point of view, five things happened.

DONOVAN: Look Bob — may I? Bob? (gestures to self) Jim. If I go
bowling and I throw a strike, one thing happened. Ten things didn’t
happen.

BATES: Jim. My clients are not bowling pins. As much your guy might
have
treated them so —

DONOVAN: Lemme finish. If your house is insured to $100,000 and a
tornado carries it away, it carried away one house. It didn’t pick up
every stick of furniture and destroy it in a separate incident. If
that’s what you’re saying, well, then there is never any limit to our
liability and that is the end of the insurance business. And then,
Bob, nobody is safe.

假如说前边的两段对话都以选配,那黄金年代段正是一发千钧的比赛了。Bates
律师试图求证,多个司机撞倒八个骑车人,要分头对几个人开展赔偿。多诺万辩解说,那是同台交通事故实际不是五起事故。有限支撑公司对协作事故的赔付有上限,所以不可能分别给五个人越多的赔偿。多诺万的视角实乃有理有据、站得住脚的。他那样说:

Up to the limit of their liability, which is $100,000 per accident in
the case of this man’s policy. And this is one claim, according to
your description. “He hit my five guys.” The guy insured by my client
had one accident, one one one, losing control of the car and
hitting five motorcyclists.

担保公司的职务上限是每起事故赔付十万美金。而驾车人撞倒四人,那是协作事故,不是五起事故。所以四个人加起来,也必须要分享那十万元的赔偿,无权向保证集团索取赔偿越来越多。

那听上去很合理,但就像在心情上令人为难选取。所以 Bates
律师反对说,对多个受害者来讲,那是五起事故。如何说服她接收一个更客观(但就好像略残忍)的眼光吗?多诺万律师用了三个类比。

类比 1
打保龄球的时候,小编扔出叁个全中,十三个球瓶被击倒,那是风姿洒脱件事,并不是十件事。

类比 2
风度翩翩幢房屋被沙尘暴摧毁,沙暴摧毁的是整座房子,实际不是生龙活虎件意气风发件分别摧毁了内部的灶具和摆放。

那五个类比看起来不讲心理。所以 Bates
律师反对说,「你无法把人看作保龄球瓶」。但这一个理论未有驳回多诺万的主干逻辑:当意气风发件工作完全发生的时候,大家不该把它割裂为许七个例外的、互相独立的平地风波。那此中心逻辑与他们商酌的那起交通事故,甚至Donovan在事故赔付职分上的立场,是大同小异的。那就是我们所说的客观类比。鉴于
TOEFL 的口语、写作和 GRE 的 AW
都急需举个例子子和辩白,而说理的意气风发种情势是张开类比,举事例其实也供给例子自身和观念之间变成有效类比。那什么是卓有成效的类比和举个例子呢?

  1. 类比关系中的八个东西最佳在场景上看似且便于被清楚(风姿洒脱辆车撞了三个人,两球击倒十二个瓶);若是是举事例,那么例子自己要比观点更加直观、更易于驾驭。
  2. 类比关系中的多个东西在内在逻辑上中度生机勃勃致(风流倜傥辆车一次性撞了五个人,一场尘暴一下子消逝了整座房屋);例子也要和观念的内在逻辑中度生机勃勃致。

那番话可以说已经到头驳回了 Bates
律师的看好。所以最终,多诺万为商讨盖棺论定:借使都按您说的那么赔偿,保障集团就得承受Infiniti的职责,有限援救业将在完蛋啦,並且还未谁是安全的。这番话配上后边的类比和对定义的莫斯科大学澄清,足以保证Donovan全身而退。在一切进程中,多诺万律师在语言上毫不留情,说话的语气和声调盛气凌人,但并不曾显暴光任何恼怒、不屑或自居,能够说成功了不怒自威。那也是讲道理的终端表现。

剧照 2

局地二:如何迂回出击驳回风姿罗曼蒂克种观念

而后,随着传说剧情的升华,多诺万律师接收委派,希图为Abe尔中校辩驳。中情局的探员
Hoffman找上门来,必要多诺万把她与阿Bell的对话内容告诉给中情局,以博取情报。那鲜明违反U.S.的有关法律,也违反律师的职业法规。Hoffman试图说服Donovan破坏规矩,多诺万则有理有据地对此开展了体面回手。

(此处的 MAN 就是 Hoffman 探员)

DONOVAN: CIA?

MAN: Yeah. Just wanted to chat. How’s the case going?

DONOVAN: The case is going great. Couldn’t be better.

MAN: Uh-huh. Has your guy talked?

DONOVAN: …Excuse me?

MAN: You met him, has he talked? Has he said anything yet?

(Donovan stares at him. Then,)

DONOVAN: We’re not having this conversation.

MAN: No, of course not.

DONOVAN: No, I mean we’re really not having it. You’re asking me to
violate attorney-client privilege.

到那时停止都是烘托。多诺万鲜明不想和对方打圆场,一箭上垛提出了对方的指标。这实质上也是我们要求上学的讲道理的发话情势:不要绕弯子,把你的意见刚毅果决地拍出来。考试中的口语和行文部分都有严苛的年月范围,在这里个约束之下又须求大家把话说明白,实际上正是变相地供给大家少说废话、直接奔向核心。

MAN: Oh c’mon counselor, you —

DONOVAN: And I wish people like you would quit saying “Oh c’mon,
counselor.” I didn’t like it the first time it happened today, a judge
said it to me twice, and the more I hear it, the more I don’t like it.

MAN: Ok, well listen, I understand attorney-client privilege. I
understand all the legal gamesmanship and I understand that that’s how
you make a living. But I’m talking to you about something else — the
security of your country. I’m sorry if the way I put it offends you,
but we need to know what Abel is telling you. You understand me,
Donovan? We need to know. Don’t go Boy Scout on me — we don’t have a
rule book here.

霍夫曼 在这里地的「Oh come
on」实际上在我们的平日生活中也不时现身。你和一人讲道理,他冷不防话锋大器晚成变,开头和你谈人情、谈潜准则、谈关系……你早晚对上面这一个公布不不熟悉:

「哎哎,兄弟!(不要那么认真好倒霉)」

「没事~~~~(拖十分短的唱腔,早前计划不讲理)」

霍夫曼探员试图绕开法律和律师的营生准绳,他的刀兵比常常的人情冷暖世故要强硬得多:「那是为着国家安全的内需」。仗着那多少个神圣的大字,他要求多诺万律师违背保密契约,「别跟作者玩童军荣誉守则(Boy
Scout),大家不讲游戏法则。」

国家安全,那到底是一块很吓人的招牌。面临相同的流氓,我们本来能够严穆地批驳倒手。但若是那人是您的业主,希图对你利用咸猪手呢?就如我们就得思虑换少年老成种格局职业,无法轻便地说一句「你滚」。所以Donovan律师接下去放了八个大招:

(Donovan takes a beat, sizing the man up.)

DONOVAN: You’re agent Hoffman, yeah?

MAN: Yeah.

DONOVAN: 德文 extraction? (extraction 可以精通为出身,即 霍夫曼有德意志血统)

MAN: Yeah, so?

DONOVAN: My name is Donovan, Irish. Both sides, mother and father.I’m
Irish, you’re German, but what makes us both Americans? Just one
thing, one one one. The rule book. We call it the Constitution. We
agree to the rules, and that’s what makes us Americans, it’s all that
makes us Americans. So don’t tell me there’s no rule book and don’t
nod at me like that you sonofabitch.

末段这段话是第拔尖的「以夷伐夷」。在您开诚布公正面驳回对手的意见时,建议对方逻辑中不可能自洽之处,让对方不战而败,正是精品选项。霍夫曼你不是跟本人讲国家安全,讲游戏准则吗?嗯,U.S.A.的总游戏准绳是United States刑法;未有美利坚联邦合众国商法就从不所谓的美利坚合众国,因为要是不分明国际法,你这一个意大利人和本身那些爱尔兰人就与美利坚联邦合众国一毛钱关系远非。所以当您以国家安全的名义让本人做违背United States民事诉讼法和法规的事的时候,对不起,你在毁掉U.S.设有的底子。你是相互抵触的。

多诺万律师的思路实际上相通于归谬法(Reductio ad
absurdum),其焦点步骤是如此的:

  1. 鉴定识别出对方意见中的前提和结论,大概说手腕和指标(为了国家安全,小编要你做违规的事)
  2. 从对方的论述中引申出八个或风姿罗曼蒂克多元严密的估量(违规的业务,特别是违宪的事务,实际上动摇了美利坚合众国设有的底子)
  3. 最终得出多少个估算,与对方论述中的前提或根本指标矛盾(动摇United States设有的底子等于抑低国家安全,即为了国家安全而最终威逼了江山安全)
  4. 停在那地。

在争鸣和辩驳中,假诺大家能把话提及那一个程度,那么普通已经得以转身浪漫地走开,「你曾经死了」。所以最终多诺万也丝毫不图谋掩盖他对
霍夫曼 的不喜欢,用一句 s.o.b. 甘休了讲话。

这番话间接把 Hoffman打得无言以对。在多诺万整理东西打算走的时候,他讪笑着又多问了一句话,「大家相应忧虑你吗?(Do
we need to worry about
you?)」那句话实际包括暗中威吓的意义,「假如产生哪些不太好的事情本身可不通晓该怎么担负啊……」。对此,多诺万丝毫不为所动,「假令你们让自家实行自己的天职就怎么事都不会爆发。(Not
if I’m left alone to do my job.)」意思正是,你们 CIA
请笔者来做辩白律师,你假诺做了对本身不利的事,那实在就打了您本人的脸,你望着办。

足见,在盛大的讲话中讲道理,那是生龙活虎件十一分难的事。我们必要的是对团结立场的分明坚定不移,对对方视角中的漏洞予以坚决回手,还要有足够的胆气。另一面,固然在冷战的浮动氛围下,美利坚合众国生机勃勃体化上依旧是个讲道理之处,那也是令大家丰富赞佩的……所以,当我们意在去美利坚同车笠之盟留学,希望在讲道理的
TOEFL 和 GRE
考试中赢得好战绩的时候,请必得学会怎么在盛大的语境下讲道理。

2016 年 2 月

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